Acid rain affects the whole environment. Polluted rain enters surface waters and permeates into the groundwater. It makes the aluminium in the soil reactive and leaches out the nutrients. Trees and plants are damaged both through the decrease in soil nutrients and also directly by the acidic rain falling on them. Biodiversity in areas affected by acid rain is likely to be poor.
Areas affected by acid rain are found mainly in Europe, the United States of America and in China. Affected regions are generally close to highly urbanised and industrialised areas but long range transport of air pollutants can result in acid rain damage far away from the pollution sources.