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Climate in Cities
1. Air Pollution
2. Urban Climate
3. Acid Rain

Climate in cities


City modifies the local climate due to the density and character of the built-up. Materials used to construct the buildings, streets etc. also play important role. All those factors change radiation, heat and water balances of a city. Urban bioclimate is the subject of research for bioclimatologists; they study how urban climate effects living organisms, mainly humans.




Air pollution in urban areas has a great significance for human health. Energy production, industry and transportation deliver various kinds of air pollution. For example acid rains, caused by the sulphur and nitrogen oxides delivered to the atmosphere, cause not only soil degradation and acidification of lakes, but also economic losses, due to faster corrosion of metal elements used outdoor. Also buildings get effected, especially those built of limestone, marble etc. There have been many attempts to reduce air pollution. The systems of air pollution monitoring are established in the endangered regions. International cooperation led to many agreements and treaties which help to improve air quality in global scale.


1.  Air pollution due to human activity

- Energy production and transportation
- Industry and other branches of economy
- Impact of air pollution (overview)
- Mitigation of air pollution
* Worksheet 1: Air contaminants from exhaust gases of motor vehicles
* Worksheet 2: Ozone in the cities and surrounding areas

2. Urban climate

- Radiation balance
- Heat balance
- Water balance
- Urban bioclimate
* Worksheet 1: Radiation balance
* Worksheet 2: Heat Balance
* Worksheet 3: Water Balance
* Worksheet 4: Urban Bioclimate
* Worksheet 5: Wind in language lessons
* Worksheet 6: Wind in art education
* Worksheet 7: Wind in music lessons
* Worksheet 8: Wind in gymnastics

3.  Acid rain

- Origin of acid rain
- The impact of acid rain on human health and economy
- What can we do against acid rains?
* Worksheet 1:
* Worksheet 2:



last updated 09.07.2005 23:45:35 | © ESPERE-ENC 2003 - 2013