Abbreviations and definitions:
As in all fields of life there are many abbreviations and special terms in environmental policy. Here is what they mean.
Capacity building is a process of building up environmentally friendly techonologies in developing countries. It means to build, develop, strengthen and improve existing scientific and technical skills and to assess, adapt, manage and develop environmentally sound technologies.
CDM = Clean Development Mechanism
A program under which various activities are carried in order to reduce emissions (for example projects with low emission power plants and renewable energies).
COP = conference of the parties of UNFCCC
The 11th conference COP11 took place in Montreal in 2005.
MOP = meeting of the parties of the Kyoto protocol
The first meeting of the parties of the Kyoto protocol took place in Montreal in 2005 parallel to COP11 since the Kyoto Protocol had just come into force in 2005.
GEF = Global Environment Facility
The GEF, established in 1991, is an organisation for financial support which helps developing countries fund projects and programmes that protect the global environment. GEF grants support projects related to biodiversity, climate change, international waters, land degradation, the ozone layer, and persistent organic pollutants.
IPCC = Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) is an expert council which has been established by the World Meteorological Organisation (WMO) and the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). The IPCC summarises scientific, technical and socioeconomic information relevant for the understanding of climate change, its potential impacts and options for adaptation and mitigation.
LDC = Least Developed Countries (see below)
SIDS = Small Island Developing States (see below)
UNFCCC = United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change
The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC or FCCC) is an international environmental treaty produced at the so called "Earth Summit" held in Rio de Janeiro in 1992. The treaty aims at reducing emissions of greenhouse gases in order to combat global warming.
SBI = Subsidiary Body for Implementation (UNFCCC body)
A subsidiary body for implementation is a sort of expert group, which has been established to assist the Conference of the Parties in the assessment and review of the effective implementation of the Convention and to assist in the preparation and implementation of its decisions.
SBSTA = Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice (UNFCCC body)
A subsidiary body for scientific and technological advice is an expert council of governmental representatives. It is established to provide the Conference of the Parties or other subsidiary bodies with information and advice on scientific and technological matters relating to the Convention. It shall report regularly to the Conference of the Parties on all aspects of its work.
The SBSTA shall assess the state of scientific knowledge relating to climate change and its effects, summarise the effects of measures taken in the implementation of the Convention, identify innovative and efficient technologies and know-how, etc.
Groups in the Environmental Discussions:
Annex I = Annex I Parties of the UNFCCC (List)
Annex I Parties include the industrialized countries that were members of the OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development) in 1992, plus countries with economies in transition (the EIT Parties), including the Russian Federation, the Baltic States, and several Central and Eastern European States.
Annex II = Annex II Parties of the UNFCCC (List)
Annex II Parties consist of the OECD members of Annex I, but not the EIT Parties. They are required to provide financial resources to enable developing countries to undertake emissions reduction activities under the Convention and to help them adapt to adverse effects of climate change. In addition, they have to "take all practicable steps" to promote the development and transfer of environmentally friendly technologies to EIT Parties and developing countries.
Non-Annex I = Non-Annex I parties of the UNFCCC
Non-Annex I parties are mostly developing countries. They include the 50 or so least developed countries (LDC).
G77/China = Group of 77 China
The Group of 77 (G-77) was established on 15 June 1964 by seventy-seven developing countries, signatories of the "Joint Declaration of the Seventy-Seven Countries" issued at the end of the first session of the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) in Geneva. G77 adopted the Charter of Algiers and a permanent institutional structure gradually developed. Although membership of the G-77 has increased to 132 countries, the original name was retained because of its historic significance.
SIDS = Small Island Developing States
Small Island Developing States are developing countries which are relatively small islands and therefore particularly endangered by potential consquences of climate change such as tropical storms or sea level rise.
LCD = Least Developed Countries (list)
Least developed countries are about 50 countries which show a low development state due to low income, weak human resources and high economic vulnerability.